They include state-run, for-profit, and non-profit, privately run agencies. They are organized in pairs. Carbon monoxide, lead, arsenic, quinine and other substances may lead to mental retardation. This phenomenon is shared with and motor disabilities, and seen to a lesser degree in sensory disabilities. Mental disorders are assumed to result from some behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. He may be more prone to diseases and damages in such unsuitable home environments.
By the end of the 20th century, these terms themselves have come to be widely seen as disparaging and politically incorrect and in need of replacement. About 14% is due to increased medical expenses not including what is normally incurred by the typical person , 10% is due to direct non-medical expenses, such as the excess cost of compared to standard schooling, and 76% is indirect costs accounting for reduced productivity and shortened lifespans. Assessment of the Mentally Sub-Normal: It is an essential necessity to assess the sensory, motor, language, cognitive areas and overall personality of the retarders to identify the disables among the retarders. Many severely retarded individuals are able to live in a group home. A promising but controversial treatment for mental retardation involves stem cell research. They may be wild, fearful, restless and finally uncontrollable.
Mild mental retardation Approximately 85% of the mentally retarded population is in the mildly retarded category. Counseling and therapy are another important type of treatment for the mentally retarded. National Library of Medicine 0. This affects the names of schools, hospitals, societies, government departments, and academic journals. For this purpose, the cooperation from doctors, educationalists and psychologists is essential. An accident or mutation in genetic development may also cause retardation.
Children are given intelligence tests to measure their learning abilities and intellectual functioning. Mental retardation is a developmental disability that first appears in children under the age of 18. But at about 6 months of age various motor complications appear. The level of training depends on the degree of retardation. Many people who are considered developmentally challenged in the complex modern world would get along normally in a simpler society. Intermittent support, for example, is support needed only occasionally, perhaps during times of stress or crisis.
Because of its specificity and lack of confusion with other conditions, mental retardation is still sometimes used in professional medical settings around the world, such as formal scientific research and health insurance paperwork. The condition ranges in severity from mild to profound. Today it is felt that about 50 per cent of the hydrocephalic patients if treated early can be salvaged for normal mental and neuromuscular development. Extracurricular activities and social programs are also important in helping retarded children and adolescents gain self-esteem. Socially disadvantaged people have unsuitable home environment for the proper development of the child. Children are given intelligence tests to measure their learning abilities and intellectual functioning.
Behavior contracts are a useful tool for solving this problem. When the mother has high blood pressure or blood poisoning toxemia , the flow of oxygen to the fetus may be reduced, causing brain damage and mental retardation. Attempts have been made by Government and Private institutions and organisations to take special care of the mentally retarded persons. A pregnant person who drinks see or gets an infection like may also have a baby with intellectual disability. It is the type of support typically required for most mildly retarded individuals. .
Anoxia or lack of oxygen during the birth process may lead to mild retardation. Thalidomide may produce limbless, eyeless retarded babies in 20 per cent of the woman using it. The regional variation between 0. Several evidences suggest that retarded persons of all ages particularly the severe retarded one have high prevalence of associated psychiatric disorders which are diagnosable. A child has to be able to talk in order to perform intelligence tests, and some intelligence tests have to wait until school age. Special education and training may begin as early as infancy; in fact, early intervention is a critical part of treatment. In the 18th and 19th centuries, housing and care moved away from families and towards an.
It encompasses intellectual scores, adaptive functioning scores from an adaptive behavior rating scale based on descriptions of known abilities provided by someone familiar with the person, and also the observations of the assessment examiner who is able to find out directly from the person what he or she can understand, communicate, and such like. She became very irritable and uncontrollable which often happens. The American Association on Mental Deficiency lists eight medical classifications and five psychological classifications; the latter five replace the three former classifications of moron, imbecile, and idiot. To reach these goals, they need appropriate and consistent educational, community, social, family, and vocational supports. Early emotional deprivation and disturbed parent child relationship has a possible role to play in mental retardation. In various institutions and homes for mentally retarders, children have been taught various skills like tailoring, book binding, gardening, carpentry, washing and the like.
Diagnosis If mental retardation is suspected, a comprehensive and medical history should be done immediately to discover any organic cause of symptoms. Here the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of the biochemical phenylalanine is not present at birth. Sometimes involving pictures and visual aids, therapists aim at improving speech capacity so that short sentences about important daily tasks e. It is defined as an intellectual functioning level as measured by standard tests for intelligence quotient that is well below average and significant limitations in daily living skills adaptive functioning. If these conditions are discovered early, the progression of retardation can be stopped and, in some cases, partially reversed.
By the end of the 20th century, these terms themselves have come to be widely seen as disparaging, , and in need of replacement. The term intellectual disability or intellectually challenged is now preferred by most advocates in most English-speaking countries. In addition to this, Goldman, Kufman and Liebman 1974 have found that out of 55 children, weighing less than 3 pounds at birth, at age 5, only 30 per cent were attending regular schools. As individuals with intellectual disability reach adulthood, many learn to live independently and maintain gainful employment. Roughly 1% of the population are intellectually disabled. Mentally retarded children lag behind their peers in developmental milestones such as smiling, sitting up, walking, and talking.